The standard method suggested by this site for DIY well drilling
Before we go further, it is important to understand the standard method
of drilling or washing a well (sometimes called a borewell) that I am suggesting you use. There are several
variations or "enhancements" to the technique but first please just
understand and try this plain ol' well washing method.
The first step is to drill the bore hole. Do this by running
water down a 2 inch piece of PVC as you slowly rotate the PVC back and
forth. The 2 inch PVC is the drill pipe. It has teeth cut
into the bottom end of it. The bottom end is drill bit. Teeth cut into the end of the PVC will dig away at the dirt
or clay or sand and then the water will carry the cuttings to the top.
Make sure you understand the drawing below before you go any futher.
After you have drilled the hole you need to put the well screen in.
You can't just pull the drill pipe out and then insert the well screen
pipe because most of the time sand will collapse in the bottom of the
hole. Unless you are extremely fast, you won't be able to get the
whole length of well screen pipe in. By using a larger drill pipe
than your well screen pipe you can put the well screen pipe in before
you take the drill pipe out. So, the next step is to set the well screen...
BEFORE WE GO FURTHER YOU MUST UNDERSTAND WHAT A WELL SCREEN IS: A
well screen is a piece of pipe with a bunch of slits in it sized so
water can enter and sand can not. The slits are skinnier than a
piece of sand. By a bunch of slits, I mean hundreds. In this
instance we will be using a well screen made from PVC. Most are
three or four feet long. You simply glue them to a length of PVC
and put the slotted end at the bottom. Say your hole is 29 feet
deep and your well screen is 1.25 inches in diameter and 4 feet long.
Your well screen pipe would consist of four feet of the slotted pipe at
the bottom attached to 25 feet of 1.25 inch diameter PVC pipe.
Keep the water running while you: Make
up your well screen pipe by gluing a 1.25 inch well screen to a 1.25
inch PVC pipe. The total length should equal the depth of your
Turn off the water and disconnect the water supply from the top of the
Put the 1.25 inch well screen pipe into the 2.00 inch drill pipe and
insert it all the way to the bottom of the hole.
Pull the 2.00 inch drill pipe up and out of the ground, taking care not
to pull the 1.25 inch well screen pipe up with it.
This will leave you with just the 1.25 inch well screen pipe in the
ground. This is your well. You have a bit more work to do
but you could attach a pump to it at this point and have an operational
Before you quit you need to seal the well. This keeps surface
contaminants from getting into the groundwater. Do this by
putting cement or bentonite down the sides of the well in "annular
space" around the drillpipe. Before you do this make sure the sand
at the bottom of your well has collapsed around your well screen.
If it hasn't or if you are not sure, pour some sand in until you get
within 10 feet of the top and then fill it with cement. Most folks
are referring to concrete when they say cement. Finish the well by pouring wet cement or
bentonite down the annular space so the top 10 feet are filled.
Side note: When I say cement, I mean cement, not concrete.
Concrete is cement mixed with an aggreate such as sand or gravel.
It has more compressive strength. For example, sidewalks,
driveways, streets, and buildings are commonly made with concrete, the
mixture of cement and aggregate. They are never made with
cement alone. The slurry made by mixing cement and water is excellent
for filling little crevices in the hole and is just what we need to keep
groundwater out of our well. For sealing the well, use
cement. Mix cement and water until it is thouroughly mixed and has
the consistency of a milkshake and pour it down the hole. Pour it
in the annular space between the well screen pipe and the ground. Then
leave it alone for a few days so it can cure.
Below is an excellent
demonstration of how to insert the well screen and then remove the
drillpipe. It is from Nomadic Medhunter on YouTube. He also
describes the technique he used to compensate for the lack of water
pressure. He started with a 3/4 inch drillpipe, then moved up to a
1.25 inch drillpipe and then finally drilled the well with a 2.00 inch
drillpipe. Next, he inserted a 1.25 inch well screen into the
2.00 inch drillpipe and pulled the 2.00 inch drillpipe out of the
ground, leaving only the 1.25 inch well screen.